On an elemental level, human urine contains 6. Medical experts have long connected urine colour with certain medical conditions. Normal urine is a transparent solution ranging from colorless to amber but is usually a pale yellow. Colorless urine in drug tests can suggest an attempt to avoid detection of illicit drugs in the bloodstream through over-hydration. Dark yellow urine is often indicative of dehydration. Dark urine due to low fluid intake. The odor of normal human urine can reflect what has been consumed or specific diseases.

For example, an individual with diabetes mellitus may present a sweetened urine odor. This can be due to kidney diseases as well, such as kidney stones. Particularly spicy foods can have a similar effect, as their compounds pass through the kidneys without being fully broken down before exiting the body. 5 to 7 with an average of 6. A diet which is high in protein from meat and dairy, as well as alcohol consumption can reduce urine pH, whilst potassium and organic acids such as from diets high in fruit and vegetables can increase the pH and make it more alkaline. Some drugs also can increase urine pH, including acetazolamide, potassium citrate, and sodium bicarbonate.

Cranberries, popularly thought to decrease the pH of urine, have actually been shown not to acidify urine. Human urine has a specific gravity of 1. Any deviations may be associated with urinary disorders. Healthy urine is not toxic. However, it contains compounds eliminated by the body as undesirable, and can be irritating to skin and eyes. Current research suggests though that urine is not sterile, even in the bladder. Many physicians in ancient history resorted to the inspection and examination of the urine of their patients.

A microscopic examination of the urine may be helpful to identify organic or inorganic substrates and help in the diagnosis. Clear and copious urine is generally a sign of adequate hydration. Urine also contains antibodies, which can be used in diagnostic antibody tests for a range of pathogens, including HIV-1. The exact composition of nutrients in urine varies with diet, in particular nitrogen content in urine is related to quantity of protein in the diet. A high protein diet results in high urea levels in urine. Undiluted urine can chemically burn the leaves or roots of some plants, particularly if the soil moisture content is low. For this reason, urine fertilizer is usually applied diluted with water.

The fertilization effect of urine has been found to be comparable to that of commercial nitrogen fertilizers. The risks of using urine as a natural source of agricultural fertilizer are generally regarded as negligible or acceptable. Because urea in urine breaks down into ammonia, urine has been used for the cleaning properties of the ammonia therein. Urine, a nitrogen source, was used to moisten straw or other organic material, which was kept moist and allowed to rot for several months to over a year. These guides explain that drinking urine tends to worsen rather than relieve dehydration due to the salts in it, and that urine should not be consumed in a survival situation, even when there is no other fluid available. Allied troops were supplied with masks of cotton pads that had been soaked in urine. British Army during World War I, required water for cooling when fired so soldiers would resort to urine if water was unavailable.

However, at best it is ineffective, and in some cases this treatment may make the injury worse. Tanners soaked animal skins in urine to remove hair fibers—a necessary step in the preparation of leather. The systematic collection and sale of urine can be worthwhile in some contexts. Image of two facing pages of the illuminated manuscript of «Isagoge», fols. Inside the letter is a picture of a master on bench pointing at a raised flask while lecturing on the «Book on urines» of Theophilus. The right hand page is only shown in part.

Inside the letter is a picture of a master holding up a flask while explaining the diagnostic significance of urine to a student or a patient. HMD Collection, MS E 78. Urinate» was at first used mostly in medical contexts. Duration of urination does not change with body size». The Characterization of Feces and Urine: A Review of the Literature to Inform Advanced Treatment Technology». Reduction of bacteriuria and pyuria after ingestion of cranberry juice». While cranberry juice has been advocated as a urinary acidifier to prevent urinary tract infections, not all studies have shown a reduction in urine pH with cranberry juice ingestion, even with consumption of 2000 mL per day. Ibn Habib, Abdul Malik d. New York, New York: Springer: 489. Technology review of urine diversion components — Overview on urine diversion components such as waterless urinals, urine diversion toilets, urine storage and reuse systems. This page was last edited on 28 December 2017, at 01:01. Squamous Epithelial Cells in Urine: What Does It Mean? Find out what it means to have squamous epithelial cells in a urine sample. Healthy and Natural World » Squamous Epithelial Cells in Urine: What Does It Mean?