Sense of «gap or interruption in events, etc. An aperture or fissure in an organ or a body part. 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.

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Male cats are usually the ones that undergo Perineal Urethrostomy. This is because male cats are more prone to develop urinary blockage than female cats. This is because the urethra of male cats becomes considerably narrow as it passes through the penis. This is where the materials usually get lodged. Obstructions are often the result of plugs of inflammatory material, or small calculi or «stones» that have formed in the kidneys and have passed down into the bladder . The cause of the inflammatory materials and stone formation it not well understood, though viral infections and diet may play a role.

Most affected cats are within 1 to 10 years of age. These bouts usually resolve in 5-7 days with treatment but will recur in many cats within 6-12 months. Once the cats become obstructed, they may attempt to urinate in the litter box but will produce no urine. They may cry, move restlessly, or hide because of discomfort, and eventually will lose their appetites and become lethargic. Complete obstruction can cause death of the cat in 3-6 days. A cat with a urethral obstruction will have a large bladder that is easily felt in the back half of the belly. Don’t assume your cat is constipated and just give him laxatives.

Instead, play it safe and seek veterinary attention. Other signs of obstruction include depression, weakness, vomiting, a lack of appetite, dehydration, and collapse. It is very hard for cat owners to discern whether their pets are in pain or not. It is necessary for the owners to know this because the pain may cause stress to the animal and do further damage. Several signs like growling and biting, as well as not wanting to eat and to be near their owners are the signs that the cat is in pain. The cause of urethral plugs is not fully known. Possibly, some viruses or bacterial infections trigger their formation.

Some experts believe plugs may be linked to tumors, masses, or diseases of the prostate gland in some cases. In cats with signs of urinary tract inflammation, blood work is evaluated to check kidney function and to determine if there is any evidence of infection or other systemic illnesses. A urine sample is evaluated for crystals and may be sent in for culture, although bacterial infections of the bladder are uncommon in cats. Clinical signs of straining and painful urinations can be seen in cats with bladder inflammation or calculi that do not have obstructions. Cats with constipation or anal sac disease may also strain and cry in the litter box. Cats that have urinary obstruction require emergency treatment. The veterinarian will sedate or anesthetize the cat and place a catheter into the urethra to flush out the plug or force the stone into the bladder. The urinary catheter is then removed, and the cat is placed on intravenous fluids so that it will urinate frequently. The veterinarian may also prescribe pain medication or other drugs to make the cat more comfortable and to help it relax. Following anesthesia, the pet is placed on a surgical table, typically lying on his abdomen with the perineum exposed to the surgeon. The hair is clipped around the area selected for the surgery. The surgery is done typically between the scrotum and the rectum.